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航天器威胁规避智能自主控制技术研究综述

袁利 姜甜甜

袁利, 姜甜甜. 航天器威胁规避智能自主控制技术研究综述. 自动化学报, 2022, 48(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c211027
引用本文: 袁利, 姜甜甜. 航天器威胁规避智能自主控制技术研究综述. 自动化学报, 2022, 48(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c211027
Yuan Li, Jiang Tian-Tian. Review on intelligent autonomous control for spacecraft confronting orbital threats. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2022, 48(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c211027
Citation: Yuan Li, Jiang Tian-Tian. Review on intelligent autonomous control for spacecraft confronting orbital threats. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2022, 48(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c211027

航天器威胁规避智能自主控制技术研究综述

doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c211027
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(U21B6001)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    袁利:中国空间技术研究院研究员. 主要研究方向为航天器自主控制和鲁棒容错控制技术. E-mail: yuanli@spacechina.com

    姜甜甜:北京控制工程研究所高级工程师. 主要研究方向为航天器控制技术. 本文通信作者. E-mail: jiangtt@amss.ac.cn

Review on Intelligent Autonomous Control for Spacecraft Confronting Orbital Threats

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U21B6001)
More Information
    Author Bio:

    YUAN Li Professor at China Academy of Space Technology. His research interest covers spacecraft autonomous control and robust fault-tolerant control

    JIANG Tian-Tian Senior engineer at Beijing Institute of Control Engineering. Her main research interest is spacecraft control. Corresponding author of this paper

  • 摘要: 当前, 轨道空间日益拥挤、太空竞争不断加剧, 对航天器执行既定任务时的轨道威胁自主应对能力提出了新的挑战, 使得航天器智能自主控制技术迎来新的发展机遇. 在调研分析了轨道威胁感知、自主决策规划、规避机动动作执行、自主控制系统架构相关研究进展的基础上, 总结提出了威胁规避智能自主控制面临的主要瓶颈问题, 并分析指出发展“感知−决策−执行”一体化控制是破解瓶颈难题的有效手段, 最后从一体化控制系统建模、设计、分析与验证多方面, 系统讨论了威胁规避智能自主控制需要重点关注的若干基础问题, 为未来航天器智能自主控制的理论研究和技术发展提供启发和参考.
  • 图  1  面向轨道威胁的航天器“感知−决策−执行”星上闭环过程

    Fig.  1  Spacecraft on-board “perception-decision-execution” closed-loop process for orbital threats

    图  2  航天器“感知−决策−执行”一体化控制系统逻辑架构示意图

    Fig.  2  Logical architecture diagram of spacecraft “perception-decision-execution” integrated control system

    图  3  四个方面基础问题之间的相互关系示意图

    Fig.  3  Schematic diagram of the relationship between the four basic theoretical questions

    表  1  分层递阶式架构与反应式架构优缺点对比[155]

    Table  1  Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of hierarchical architecture and reactive one[155]

    序号架构类型 项目名称 描述
    1分层递阶式架构优势不足易实现高等智能
    缺乏实时性和灵活性, 可靠性不高
    2反应式架构优势不足实时性强
    多控制回路对同一执行机构存在争夺冲突, 系统可预测性差、缺乏高等级智能
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  航天器自身及其运行环境的特点

    Table  2  Characteristics of the spacecraft and its operating environment

    项目名称特点描述
    硬件可维护性服役周期长, “运载+维护”成本高, 维修操作技术难度大, 需要长时间以“不变的硬件”适应“多变的威胁”
    星上资源星上敏感器、计算、存储等资源严重受限 (计算处理能力400~1000百万次/秒),
    需要统筹优化软硬件资源, 动态协调、消解冲突, 降低对星上资源的依赖
    光照条件空间成像条件恶劣, 目标反射不均匀导致局部图像过亮或过暗、成像连续性差; 地影区导致不可观测弧段长; 色彩单一、信息量有限
    威胁行为特征交会、绕飞、佯动等威胁行为特征不明显, 需要长期关注多类特征, 给出综合判断
    时间跨度威胁影响存续时间长 (威胁产生、变化、消失的全生命周期)
    空间跨度目标测量从米级到千公里量级, 远距离时成像分辨率低、只有方位信息, 且往往具有稀疏性
    轨道约束轨道速度大, 横向机动能力弱 (典型卫星横向机动加速度最大0.01~0.05 m/s2), 变轨代价高
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-29
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