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平行智能与CPSS: 三十年发展的回顾与展望

杨静 王晓 王雨桐 刘忠民 李小双 王飞跃

杨静, 王晓, 王雨桐, 刘忠民, 李小双, 王飞跃. 平行智能与CPSS: 三十年发展的回顾与展望. 自动化学报, 2023, 49(3): 614−634 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c230015
引用本文: 杨静, 王晓, 王雨桐, 刘忠民, 李小双, 王飞跃. 平行智能与CPSS: 三十年发展的回顾与展望. 自动化学报, 2023, 49(3): 614−634 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c230015
Yang Jing, Wang Xiao, Wang Yu-Tong, Liu Zhong-Min, Li Xiao-Shuang, Wang Fei-Yue. Parallel intelligence and CPSS in 30 years: An ACP approach. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2023, 49(3): 614−634 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c230015
Citation: Yang Jing, Wang Xiao, Wang Yu-Tong, Liu Zhong-Min, Li Xiao-Shuang, Wang Fei-Yue. Parallel intelligence and CPSS in 30 years: An ACP approach. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2023, 49(3): 614−634 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c230015

平行智能与CPSS: 三十年发展的回顾与展望

doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c230015
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划 (2018AAA0101502), 国家电网有限公司总部科技项目: 人在回路的大电网调控混合增强智能基础理论资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨静:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室博士研究生. 2020年获得北京化工大学自动化学士学位. 主要研究方向为平行制造, 社会制造, 人工智能和社会物理信息系统. E-mail: yangjing2020@ia.ac.cn

    王晓:安徽大学人工智能学院教授. 2011年获得大连理工大学网络工程学士学位. 2016年获得中国科学院大学社会计算博士学位. 主要研究方向为社会网络分析, 社会交通, 动态网群组织和多智能体建模. E-mail: xiao.wang@ahu.edu.cn

    王雨桐:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室助理研究员. 2021年获得中国科学院大学控制理论与控制工程专业博士学位. 主要研究方向为计算机视觉, 图像异常检测. E-mail: yutong.wang@ia.ac.cn

    刘忠民:北方自动控制技术研究所高级研究员. 2020年获中国科学院大学管理科学与工程博士学位. 主要研究方向为智能系统和个人的培训、验证和认证, 尤其是重型智能机械和操作. E-mail: Liuzhongminafi@163.com

    李小双:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室博士. 主要研究方向为模仿学习, 深度强化学习和智能交互. E-mail: lixiaoshuang2017@ia.ac.cn

    王飞跃:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室研究员. 主要研究方向为智能系统, 复杂系统建模, 分析与控制. 本文通信作者. E-mail: feiyue.wang@ia.ac.cn

Parallel Intelligence and CPSS in 30 Years: An ACP Approach

Funds: Supported in part by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018AAA0101502) and the Science and Technology Project of SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China): Fundamental Theory of Human-in-the-Loop Hybrid-Augmented Intelligence for Power Grid Dispatch and Control
More Information
    Author Bio:

    YANG Jing Ph.D. candidate at the State Key Laboratory for Management and Control of Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. She received her bachelor degree in automation from Beijing University of Chemical Technology in 2020. Her research interest covers parallel manufacturing, social manufacturing, artificial intelligence, and cyber-physical-social systems

    WANG Xiao Professor at the School of Artificial Intelligence, Anhui University. She received her bachelor degree in network engineering from Dalian University of Technology in 2011, and the Ph.D. degree in social computing from the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2016. Her research interest covers social network analysis, social transportation, cybermovement organizations, and multiagent modeling

    WANG Yu-Tong Assistant professor at the State Key Laboratory for Management and Control of Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. She received her Ph.D. degree in control theory and control engineering from University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2021. Her research interest covers computer vision and image anomaly detection

    LIU Zhong-Min Senior researcher at North Automatic Control Technology Institute. He received his Ph.D. degree in management science and engineering from University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2020. His research interest covers training, validating, and certificating of intelligent systems and personals, especially for heavy duty smart machineries and operations

    LI Xiao-Shuang Ph.D. at the State Key Laboratory for Management and Control of Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interest covers imitation learning, deep reinforcement learning, and intelligent interaction

    WANG Fei-Yue Professor at the State Key Laboratory for Management and Control of Complex Systems, Institue of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interest covers modeling, analysis, and control of intelligent systems and complex systems. Corresponding author of this paper

  • 摘要: 社会物理信息系统 (Cyber-physical-social systems, CPSS)在传统物理信息系统 (Cyber-physical systems, CPS)的基础上纳入对社会信号及社会关系的考虑, 利用网络世界近乎无限的人力、数据和信息资源, 突破物理世界有限的资源约束以及时空的限制. 然而, CPSS中人类和社会行为的复杂性加剧了实际系统和其模型之间的建模鸿沟, 使得系统的形态演变为“默顿系统”. 对此, 以ACP方法为核心的平行智能 (Parallel intelligence, PI) 框架通过组合人工系统 (Artificial systems, A)、计算实验 (Computational experiments, C)、平行执行 (Parallel execution, P)三个过程, 为跨越这一鸿沟提供了可行的路径. 具体而言, ACP将模型从系统解析器转变为数据生成器, 使原本难以控制的“默顿系统”可测试、可计算、可验证, 为复杂系统中“涌现”和“收敛”的对立统一确立了方法基础. 本文从平行控制与智能控制、平行机器人与平行制造、平行管理与智能交通、平行医学与智慧健康、平行生态与平行社会、平行经济系统与社会计算、平行军事系统以及平行认知与平行哲学这八个方面阐述面向CPSS的平行智能应用成果. 最后, 对CPSS未来的发展方向和技术趋势进行了讨论与展望.
  • 图  1  社会物理信息系统的哲学基础和基本结构[9]

    Fig.  1  The basic philosophy and structure of CPSS[9]

    图  2  人工系统和物理系统间的建模鸿沟[26]

    Fig.  2  The modeling gaps between actual systems and artificial systems[26]

    图  3  平行智能的系统框架和流程[27]

    Fig.  3  The framework and process of parallel intelligence[27]

    图  4  2001年微软陈自瑶事件

    Fig.  4  The Microsoft Ziyao Chen Incident in 2001

    图  5  社会物理信息系统: 平行智能的基础设施[27]

    Fig.  5  CPSS: A smart infrastructure for parallel intelligence[27]

    图  6  基于ACP面向社会物理信息系统的平行智能框架[26]

    Fig.  6  ACP-based parallel intelligence framework for CPSS[26]

    图  7  基于ACP的平行智能: 从UDC到AFC[62]

    Fig.  7  ACP-based parallel intelligence: From UDC to AFC[62]

    图  8  基于人工系统的计算实验[7]

    Fig.  8  Computational experiments based on artificial systems[7]

    图  9  平行智能和社会物理信息系统的应用成果

    Fig.  9  Applications of parallel intelligence and CPSS

    图  10  自学习平行控制框架[74]

    Fig.  10  Self-learning parallel control framework[74]

    图  11  平行系统与平行学习[63]

    Fig.  11  Parallel learning based on parallel systems[63]

    图  12  平行制造框架图[81]

    Fig.  12  The framework of parallel manufacturing[81]

    图  13  平行机器的系统架构[80]

    Fig.  13  The system architecture of parallel machines[80]

    图  14  平行矿山示意图[95]

    Fig.  14  The concept of parallel mining[95]

    图  15  基于CPSS的平行交通系统[10]

    Fig.  15  Parallel transportation system based on CPSS[10]

    图  16  平行企业的基本运行流程[110]

    Fig.  16  The basic workflow of parallel enterprise[110]

    图  17  基于CPSS的平行医院系统[115]

    Fig.  17  The framework of parallel hospital[115]

    图  18  平行农业智能技术[123]

    Fig.  18  Parallel agriculture intelligence technology[123]

    图  19  基于虚实互动的平行城市[128]

    Fig.  19  Parallel city with real-virtual interactions[128]

    图  20  智慧社会的技术支撑体系[133]

    Fig.  20  Technological framework of smart societies[133]

    图  21  现代战争形态 —— 明战、暗战、观战[135]

    Fig.  21  Modern war: Physical level, cyber level, social level[135]

    图  22  平行哲学及其引导知识体系[141]

    Fig.  22  Parallel philosophy: Process of parallel interaction and entanglement between virtual and real and correspondent prescriptive knowledge system[141]

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  • 收稿日期:  2023-01-11
  • 录用日期:  2023-03-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-03-21
  • 刊出日期:  2023-03-20

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