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解耦表征学习综述

文载道 王佳蕊 王小旭 潘泉

文载道, 王佳蕊, 王小旭, 潘泉. 解耦表征学习综述. 自动化学报, 2021, 47(x): 1−24 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210096
引用本文: 文载道, 王佳蕊, 王小旭, 潘泉. 解耦表征学习综述. 自动化学报, 2021, 47(x): 1−24 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210096
Wen Zai-Dao, Wang Jia-Rui, Wang Xiao-Xu, Pan Quan. A Review of Disentangled Representation Learning. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2021, 47(x): 1−24 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210096
Citation: Wen Zai-Dao, Wang Jia-Rui, Wang Xiao-Xu, Pan Quan. A Review of Disentangled Representation Learning. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2021, 47(x): 1−24 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210096

解耦表征学习综述

doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210096
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(61806165, 61790552, 61801020), 陕西省基础研究计划) (2020JQ-196)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    文载道:西北工业大学自动化学院副教授. 主要研究方向为压缩感知与稀疏模型, 认知机器学习, 合成孔径雷达图像解译, 多源自主目标识别. E-mail: wenzaidao@nwpu.edu.cn

    王佳蕊:西北工业大学自动化学院博士研究生. 主要研究方向为解耦表征学习, SAR图像处理, 因果推理. E-mail: wangjiarui_wyy163@163.com

    王小旭:西北工业大学自动化学院教授. 主要研究方向为惯性器件与惯性导航, 合成孔径雷达图像解译, 协同感知. 本文通信作者. E-mail: woyaofly1982@163.com

    潘泉:西北工业大学自动化学院教授, 信息融合技术教育部重点实验室主任. 主要研究方向为信息融合理论及应用, 目标跟踪与识别技术, 光谱成像及图像处理. E-mail: quanpan@nwpu.edu.cn

A Review of Disentangled Representation Learning

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61806165, 61790552, 61801020), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in ShaanXi Province of China (2020JQ-196)
More Information
    Author Bio:

    WEN Zai-Dao Associate professor at the School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University. His research interest covers compressed sensing and sparse model, cognitive machine learning, Synthetic Aperture Radar image interpretation, and multisource automatic target recognition

    WANG Jia-Rui Ph. D., candidate at the school of automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University. Her research interest covers disentangled representation learning, SAR image processing and Causal reasoning

    WANG Xiao-Xu Professor at the school of automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University. His research interest covers inertial devices and inertial navigation, Synthetic Aperture Radar image interpretation, cooperative sensing

    PAN Quan Professor at the School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University. He is also the director of the Key Laboratory of Information Fusion Technology, Ministry of Education. His research interest covers information fusion theory and application, target tracking and recognition technology, spectral imaging and image processing

  • 摘要: 在大数据时代下, 以高效自主隐式特征提取能力闻名的深度学习引发了新一代人工智能的热潮, 然而其背后黑箱不可解释的“捷径学习”现象成为制约其进一步发展的关键性瓶颈问题. 解耦表征学习通过探索大数据内部蕴含的物理机制和逻辑关系复杂性, 从数据生成的角度解耦数据内部多层次、多尺度的潜在生成因子, 促使深度网络模型学会像人类一样对数据进行自主智能感知, 逐渐成为新一代基于复杂性的可解释深度学习领域内重要研究方向, 具有重大的理论意义和应用价值. 本文系统地综述了解耦表征学习的研究进展, 对当前解耦表征学习中的关键技术及典型方法进行了分类阐述, 分析并汇总了现有各类算法的适用场景并对此进行了可视化实验性能展示, 最后指明了解耦表征学习今后的发展趋势以及未来值得研究的方向.
  • 图  1  人类对于交通场景量测数据的层次化智能感知示意图

    Fig.  1  Human's hierarchical intelligent perception of a traffic scene

    图  2  深度网络的捷径学习(Shortcut Learning)现象示例图[21]

    Fig.  2  Examples of “Shortcut Learning” in DNNs[21]

    图  3  决策空间示意图[21]

    Fig.  3  Taxonomy of decision rules[21]

    图  4  人类视网膜瞥视过程图[60]

    Fig.  4  Illustration of the retinal transformation[60]

    图  5  模型架构设计图[64]

    Fig.  5  AIR framework[64]

    图  6  深度梯形网络模型图

    Fig.  6  Deep ladder network models

    图  7  简易树形变分自编码模型示意图[74]

    Fig.  7  Latent tree variational autoencoder

    图  8  RCN模型示意图[73]

    Fig.  8  RCN[73]

    图  9  遥感舰船图像组数据示例图

    Fig.  9  Samples from remote sensing ship group images

    图  10  GSL模型[78]用在遥感舰船图像组数据集中对应的网络架构示意图

    Fig.  10  The structure of GSL model[78] when it is used in the remote sensing ship image group data set.

    图  11  人类想象泛化能力示意图[97]

    Fig.  11  An example of human imagination generalization ability[97]

    图  12  堆栈胶囊自编码网络(SCAE)模型架构图[91]

    Fig.  12  Stacked Capsule Autoencoders (SCAE)[91]

    图  15  Factor-VAE[51]算法在3D Chairs[104]以及3D Faces[105]数据集上的解耦性能展示图. 每一行代表仅有左侧标注的潜在表征取值发生改变时所对应的重构图像变化

    Fig.  15  The disentangled performance of Factor-VAE[51] for 3D Chairs[104] and 3D Faces[105] data sets. Each row represents the changes in the reconstructed image when only the specific latent marked on the left changes

    图  14  AAE[48]算法对于MNIST[100]和SVHN[101]数字数据集中类别与风格属性的解耦表征结果展示图. 图中每一行代表风格类潜在表征保持不变的情况下, 改变类别类潜在表征取值所对应的重构图像变化; 每一列代表类别类潜在表征保持不变的情况下, 改变风格类潜在表征取值所对应的重构图像变化

    Fig.  14  The disentangled performance of AAE[48] in the MNIST[100] and SVHN[101] data set. Each row represents the change of the reconstructed images corresponding to the category latent while the style latent remains unchanged; when each column represents the change of the reconstructed images corresponding to the style latent while the category latent is unchanged

    图  16  SQAIR[66]用于视频目标检测、跟踪实验结果图. 其中不同颜色的标注框代表网络递归过程中所检测、跟踪到的不同目标

    Fig.  16  The video target detection and tracking results of SQAIR[66], where the bounding boxes with different colors represent different objects

    图  17  RCN[73]用于字符分割识别的实验结果展示图. 其中左侧图像中黄色轮廓线为字符分割结果, 右侧第一列为输入遮掩数字, 第二列为网络预测的去遮掩掩码图

    Fig.  17  Scene-text parsing results with RCN[73]. The yellow outline in the left image show segmentations, the first column on the right is the occlusion input, and the second column shows the predicted occlusion mask

    图  19  文献[74]所提算法的聚类实验结果图

    Fig.  19  The clustering results of the algorithm proposed in the literature[74]

    图  18  GSL[78]算法所实现的图像属性迁移实验结果图

    Fig.  18  The image synthesis qualitative performance by GSL[78]

    图  20  文献[83]所提算法在人类关节动作识别以及部分关节风格转换后生成图像的实验结果图

    Fig.  20  The human action recognition and swapping part appearance results of the algorithm proposed in the literature[83]

    图  21  文献[97]所提算法在自然场景下按照人类偏好重组目标位置以及遮盖顺序后的实验结果图

    Fig.  21  The generation results of the algorithm proposed in the literature[97] after reorganizing the target position and the masking order in a natural scene.

    图  22  文献[98]所提方法应用在CLEVR[131]数据集上的智能知识问答实验结果图

    Fig.  22  The VQA results on the CLEVR[131] data set using the method proposed in the literature[98]

    图  13  多目标场景去遮掩实现过程示意图[97]

    Fig.  13  The framework of the ordering-Grounded Amodal Completion for multi-objective scene[97]

    表  1  非结构化表征先验归纳偏好方法对比

    Table  1  Comparison of Unstructured Representation Priori Induction Preference Methods

    工作 正则项 优点 缺点
    $\beta$-VAE[46] $-\beta {D_{\mathrm{KL}}}\left( {{q_\phi }(\boldsymbol{z}|\boldsymbol{x})\;{\rm{||}}\;p(\boldsymbol{z})} \right)$ 高$\beta$值促使网络所学到的后验分布与先验分布尽可能服从相似的独立统计特性, 提升解耦性能. 高$\beta$值在提升解耦性能的同时会限制网络的数据表征能力, 直观反映为重构性能降低, 无法很好权衡二者.
    Understanding
    disentangling in
    $\beta$-VAE[47]
    $ -\gamma \left| {\mathrm{KL}\left( {q(\boldsymbol{z}|\boldsymbol{x})\;{\rm{||}}\;p(\boldsymbol{z})} \right) - C} \right| $ 从信息瓶颈角度分析$\beta$-VAE, 在训练过程中渐进增大潜在变量的信息容量$ C $, 能够在一定程度上改善了网络对于数据表征能力与解耦能力间的权衡. 该设计下的潜在变量依旧缺乏明确的物理语义, 且网络增加了信息容量$ C $这一超参数, 需要人为设计其渐进增长趋势.
    Joint-VAE[53] $- \gamma \left| {\mathrm{KL}\left( { {q_\phi }(\boldsymbol{z}|\boldsymbol{x})\;{\rm{||} }\;p(\boldsymbol{z})} \right) - {C_{\boldsymbol{z} } } } \right|\\- \gamma \left| {\mathrm{KL}\left( { {q_\phi }(\boldsymbol{c}|\boldsymbol{x})\;{\rm{||} }\;p(\boldsymbol{c})} \right) - {C_{\boldsymbol{c} } } } \right|\;$ 运用Concrete分布[54]解决离散型潜在变量的解耦问题. 潜在变量缺乏明确物理语义.
    AAE[48] ${D_\mathrm{JS}}\left[ {{E_\phi }\left( \boldsymbol{z} \right)||p\left( \boldsymbol{z} \right)} \right]$ 利用对抗网络完成累积后验分布与先验分布间的相似性度量, 使得潜在变量的表达空间更大, 表达能力更强. 面临对抗网络所存在的鞍点等训练问题[50].
    DIP-VAE[49] $- {\lambda _{od} }\sum\nolimits_{i \ne j} {\left[ {Co{v_{ {q_\phi }\left( \boldsymbol{z} \right)} }\left[ \boldsymbol{z} \right]} \right]} _{ij}^2\\- {\lambda _d}\sum\nolimits_i { { {\left( { { {\left[ {Co{v_{ {q_\phi }\left( \boldsymbol{z} \right)} }\left[ \boldsymbol{z} \right]} \right]}_{ii} } - I} \right)}^2} }$ 设计更简便的矩估计项替代AAE[48]中对抗网络的设计, 计算更为简洁有效. 该设计仅适用于潜在变量服从高斯分布的情况且并未限制均值矩或更高阶矩, 适用范围有限.
    Factor-VAE[51] ${D_\mathrm{JS}}(q(\boldsymbol{z})||\prod\nolimits_{i = 1}^d {q({z_i})})$ 设计对抗网络直接鼓励累积后验分布$q(z)$服从因子分布, 进一步改善了网络在强表征能力与强解耦能力间的权衡. 面临对抗网络所存在的鞍点等训练问题[50].
    RF-VAE[56] ${D_\mathrm{JS}}(q(\boldsymbol{r} \circ \boldsymbol{z})||\prod\nolimits_{i = 1}^d {q({r_i \circ z_i})})$ 引入相关性指标$ r $使得网络对于无关隐变量间的解耦程度不作约束. 相关性指标$ r $也需要由网络学习得到, 加深了网络训练的复杂性.
    $\beta $-TCVAE[52] $- \alpha {I_q}(\boldsymbol{x};\boldsymbol{z}) -\\ \beta \mathrm{KL}\left( {q\left( \boldsymbol{z} \right)||\prod\nolimits_{i = 1}^d {q\left( { {z_i} } \right)} } \right)\\- \gamma \sum\nolimits_j {KL(q({z_j})||p({z_i}))}$ 证明了TC总相关项$\mathrm{KL}(q(\boldsymbol{z})||\prod\nolimits_{i = 1}^d q({z_i}) )$的重要性并赋予各个正则项不同的权重值构成新的优化函数使其具有更强的表示能力. 引入更多的超参需要人为调试.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同归纳偏好方法对比

    Table  2  Comparisons of methods based on different inductive bias

    归纳偏好分类 模型 简要描述 适用范围 数据集
    非结构化表征先验 $ \beta $-VAE[46]
    InfoGAN[55]
    文献[47]
    Joint-VAE[53]
    AAE[48]
    DIP-VAE[49]
    Factor-VAE[51]
    RF-VAE[56]
    $ \beta $-TCVAE[52]
    在网络优化过程中施加表1中不同的先验正则项, 能够促使网络学习到的潜在表征具备一定的解耦性能. 但该类方法并未涉及足够的显式物理语义约束, 网络不一定按照人类理解的方式进行解耦, 因此该类方法一般用于规律性较强的简易数据集中. 适用于解耦表征存在显著可分离属性的简易数据集, 如人脸数据集、数字数据集等. MNIST[100]; SVHN[101]; CelebA[102]; 2D Shapes[103]; 3D Chairs[104]; dSprites[103]; 3D Faces[105]
    结构化模型
    先验
    顺序深度递归网络 DRAW[62]
    AIR[64]
    SQAIR[66]
    通过构建顺序深度递归网络架构, 可以在执行决策时反复结合历史状态特征, 实现如简易场景下的检测、跟踪等. 适用于需要关联记忆的多次决策任务场景. 3D Scenes[64]; Multi-MNIST[64]; dSprites[103]; Moving-MNIST[66]; Omniglot[106]; pedestrian CCTV data[107]
    层次深度梯形网络 VLAE[70]
    文献[71]
    HFVAE[72]
    使用层次梯形网络模拟人类由浅入深的层次化认知过程, 促使每层潜在变量代表着不同的涵义, 可用作聚类等任务. 适用于简易数据集下由浅入深的属性挖掘. MNIST[100]; CelebA[102]; SVHN[101]; dSprites[103]
    树形网络 RCN[73]
    LTVAE[74]
    使用树形网络模拟人类高级神经元间的横向交互过程, 完成底层特征解耦的同时高层特征语义交互, 可用作聚类、自然场景文本识别等任务. 适用于底层特征解耦共享, 高级特征耦合交互的场景任务. CAPTCHA[108]; ICDAR-13 Robust Reading[108]; MNIST[100]; HHAR[74]; Reuters[109]; STL-10[74]
    物理知识
    先验
    分组数据的相关性 MLVAE[75]
    文献[77]
    GSL[78]
    文献[81]
    文献[82]
    文献[83]
    文献[85]
    文献[86]
    通过交换、共享潜在表征、限制互信息相关性、循环回归等方式, 实现分组数据相关因子的解耦表征. 后续可单独利用有效因子表征实现分类、分割、属性迁移数据集生成等任务. 适用于分组数据的相关有效属性挖掘. MNIST[100]; RaFD[110]; Fonts[78]; CelebA[102]; Colored-MNIST[?]; dSprites[103]; MS-Celeb-1M[111]; CUB birds[112]; ShapeNet[113]; iLab-20M[114]; 3D Shapes[81]; IAM[115]; PKU Vehicle ID[116]; Sentinel-2[117]; Norb[118]; BBC Pose dataset[119]; NTU[120]; KTH[121]; Deep Fashion[122]; Cat Head[123]; Human3.6M[124]; Penn Action[125]; 3D cars[126]
    基于对象的物理空间组合关系 MixNMatch[88] 结合数据组件化、层次化生成过程实现单目标场景的背景、姿态、纹理、形状解耦表征. 适用于单目标场景属性迁移的数据集生成. CUB birds[112]; Stanford Dogs[127]; Stanford Cars[126]
    文献[83] 考虑单目标多部件间的组合关系. 适用于人类特定部位、面部表情转换等数据生成. Cat Head[123]; Human3.6M[124]; Penn Action[128]
    SCAE[91] 提出了胶囊网络的新思想, 考虑多目标、多部件间的组合关联关系. 适用于简易数据集的目标、部件挖掘. MNIST[100]; SVHN[101]; CIFAR10
    TAGGER[87]
    IODINE[94]
    MONET[95]
    考虑多目标场景的逐次单目标解耦表征方式. 适用于简易多目标场景的目标自主解译任务. Shapes[129]; Textured MNIST[87]; CLEVR[131]; dSprites[103]; Tetris[94]; Objects Room[95]
    文献[97] 引入目标空间逻辑树状图, 解耦多目标复杂场景的遮掩关系, 可用于去遮挡等任务. 适用于自然复杂场景下少量目标的去遮挡任务. KINS[130]; COCOA[113]
    文献[98] 将目标三维本体特征视为目标内禀不变属性进行挖掘, 解决视角、尺度大差异问题, 有望实现检测、识别、智能问答等高级场景理解任务. 适用于简易数据集的高级场景理解. CLEVR[131]
    下载: 导出CSV
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