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鱼集群游动的节能机理研究综述

张天栋 王睿 程龙 王宇 王硕

张天栋, 王睿, 程龙, 王宇, 王硕. 鱼集群游动的节能机理研究综述. 自动化学报, 2021, 47(3): 475−488 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200293
引用本文: 张天栋, 王睿, 程龙, 王宇, 王硕. 鱼集群游动的节能机理研究综述. 自动化学报, 2021, 47(3): 475−488 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200293
Zhang Tian-Dong, Wang Rui, Cheng Long, Wang Yu, Wang Shuo. Research on energy-saving mechanism of fish schooling: a review. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2021, 47(3): 475−488 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200293
Citation: Zhang Tian-Dong, Wang Rui, Cheng Long, Wang Yu, Wang Shuo. Research on energy-saving mechanism of fish schooling: a review. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2021, 47(3): 475−488 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200293

鱼集群游动的节能机理研究综述

doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200293
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(U1713222, 62073316, U1806204, U1913209, 62025307), 北京市自然科学基金(JQ19020, L182060), 中国科学院青年创新促进会基金(2020137)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张天栋:中国科学院自动化研究所博士研究生. 2018年获得北京邮电大学学士学位. 主要研究方向为智能机器人, 水下仿生机器人. E-mail: zhangtiandong2018@ia.ac.cn

    王睿:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室助理研究员. 主要研究方向为智能控制, 机器人学, 水下仿生机器人. 本文通信作者. E-mail: rwang5212@ia.ac.cn

    程龙:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室研究员. 主要研究方向为机器人与智能控制. E-mail: long.cheng@ia.ac.cn

    王宇:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室副研究员. 主要研究方向为智能控制, 机器人学, 水下仿生机器人. E-mail: yu.wang@ia.ac.cn

    王硕:中国科学院自动化研究所复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室和中国科学院脑科学与智能技术卓越创新中心研究员. 主要研究方向为智能机器人, 仿生机器人和多机器人系统. E-mail: shuo.wang@ia.ac.cn

Research on Energy-Saving Mechanism of Fish Schooling: A Review

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1713222, 62073316, U1806204, U1913209, 62025307), Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation (JQ19020, L182060), and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2020137)
More Information
    Author Bio:

    ZHANG Tian-Dong Ph.D. candidate at the Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He received his bachelor degree from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications in 2018. His research interest covers intelligent robot and underwater biomimetic robot

    WANG Rui Assistant professor at the State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Science. His research interest covers intelligent control, robotics, and underwater biomimetic robot. Corresponding author of this paper

    CHENG Long Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Science. His research interest covers the robotics and intelligent control

    WANG Yu Associate professor at the State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Science. His research interest covers intelligent control, robotics, and biomimetic robot

    WANG Shuo Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interest covers intelligent robot, biomimetic robot, and multi-robot system

  • 摘要:

    集群是鱼类生物中一种常见的现象, 特定编队的集群运动可以显著提高鱼群的游动效率. 鱼集群游动节能机理的研究为机器人集群编队设计和控制提供启发与帮助, 得到了研究人员的广泛关注. 本文介绍了鱼集群游动节能机理研究的主要方法及最新的研究成果, 将研究方法分为鱼群观察分析法、计算流体力学仿真法和实验装置研究法, 并基于此对近些年的研究成果进行了综述和分析, 最后列举了鱼集群游动节能机理研究的主要问题与未来发展方向.

  • 图  1  两种节能机理假说示意图 [14]

    Fig.  1  The schematic of two hypotheses of energy-saving mechanism[14]

    图  2  鱼群菱形队形及涡街分布示意图,虚线表示菱形队形的形式[1]

    Fig.  2  The schematic of fish schooling and near vortex streets. The dotted line shows a “diamond” pattern[1]

    图  3  鳟鱼在(a)自由流场中和(b)圆柱尾流中游动时其侧边肌肉活动性的差异, 圆圈的颜色越深表示肌肉活力越大, 能耗越高[22]

    Fig.  3  The difference of red muscle activity between (a) trout swimming in free stream flow versus (b) trout holding station behind a cylinder. The color of the circle indicates muscle vitality[22]

    图  4  鳗鱼集群游动照片[31]

    Fig.  4  The photo of anguilla schooling [31]

    图  5  鱼集群中, 焦点鱼(带点)相对于其最近邻居的位置[35]

    Fig.  5  Positions of the focal fish (with dot) relative to its closest neighbor in fish schooling[35]

    图  6  两种流速下鱼集群游动示意图. ((a) ~ (d): 低速,(e) ~ (h): 高速)[37]

    Fig.  6  The schematic of the fish schooling at two flow rates. ((a) ~ (d): low speed; (e) ~ (h): high speed)[37]

    图  7  柔性板运动实验示意图 ((a)单个D形柱;(b)两个D形柱)[52]

    Fig.  7  The schematic of flexible foil movement experiment ((a) Single D-cylinder; (b) double D-cylinder)[52]

    图  8  平行排列的波动板运动示意图 ((a)同相位同步运动; (b)反相位同步运动)[65]

    Fig.  8  The schematic of traveling wavy foils movement in a side-by-side arrangement ((a) In-phase synchronous movement; (b) anti-phase synchronous movement)[65]

    图  9  4种集群编队结构的示意图 ((a)串列; (b)方阵; (c)菱形; (d)矩形. 其中相邻点横向间距为dy,纵向间距为dx)[67]

    Fig.  9  The four kinds of formation configurations ((a) tandem; (b) phalanx; (c) diamond; (d) rectangle. Lateral spacing between neighbors is given by dy and longitudinal spacing by dx)[67]

    图  10  三种前后排列的双鱼编队仿真示意图 ((a)远距离前后排列; (b)近距离前后排列; (c)并行排列)[68]

    Fig.  10  The simulation schematic of the double-fish formation ((a) long range fore-and-aft arrangement; (b) short range fore-and-aft arrangement; (c) parallel arrangement)[68]

    图  11  由两条、三条和四条鱼组成的队列及涡度结构示意图 ((a)两鱼并排(反相位); (b)两鱼并排(同相); (c)两鱼串列(紧凑); (d)两鱼串列(松散); (e)两鱼交错(紧凑); (f)两鱼交错(松散); (g)三鱼并排(反相位); (h)三鱼并排(同相); (i)三鱼梯队; (j)三鱼交错(I型); (k)三条鱼交错(II型); (l)四条鱼矩形(紧凑, 反相位); (m)四条鱼矩形(松散, 反相位); (n)四条鱼菱形)[72]

    Fig.  11  The swarm configurations and flow structures of two, three and four fish ((a) two fish side-by-side (anti-phase); (b) two fish side-by-side (in-phase); (c) two fish in-line (compact); (d) two fish in-line (loose); (e) two fish staggered (compact); (f) two fish staggered (loose); (g) three fish side-by-side (anti-phase); (h) three fish side-by-side (in-phase); (i) three fish echelon; (j) three fish staggered (type I); (k) three fish staggered (type II); (l) four fish rectangular (compact, anti-phase); (m) four fish rectangular (loose, anti-phase); (n) four fish diamond)[72]

    图  12  仿生柔性水翼实验装置[81]

    Fig.  12  The experimental setup with bionic flexible hydrofoil[81]

    图  13  旋转轨道上扑翼阵推进实验装置[83]

    Fig.  13  Experiment setup of flapping wings moving in rotational orbits[83]

    图  14  并排链接的两条机器鱼[85]

    Fig.  14  Side by side linked robotic fishes[85]

    表  1  鱼群观察分析法的发展历程

    Table  1  The development of the method of observation and analysis for fish schooling

    作者 研究方法 主要结论 (涡流效应)
    Brede[18] (1965) 观察鱼群游动过程 维持漩涡的完整性对鱼群游动的效率很重要
    Weihs[1, 19] (1973) 观察鱼群, 构建二维鱼群编队水动力模型 菱形为最优队形, 鱼群有效利用漩涡最多可节省50%的能量
    Herskin等[10] (1998) 测量9条海鲈鱼集群游动时的尾拍频率后方鲈鱼的尾拍频率比在前方鲈鱼最多降低14%, 耗氧率降低23%
    Svendsen等[21] (2003) 测量8条拟鲤组成菱形编队游动时的尾拍频率后方鱼的尾拍频率最多可比在前方低11.9%, 菱形编队有利于节能
    Liao等[22-25] (2003) 观察在圆柱挡板后游动的鳟鱼, DPIV观察涡流分布, 生物肌电信号测量仪测量鳟鱼的肌电信号鳟鱼通过感知并利用涡流来保持卡门步态, 减少了肌肉活动. 证明鳟鱼会自动改变身体运动来从漩涡中获取能量
    作者 研究方法主要结论 (槽道效应)
    Burgerhout等[31] (2013) 观察7条欧洲鳗鲡在水槽中集群游动过程, 并测量鳗鱼尾拍频率鳗鱼集群游动可减少30%功耗. 鳗鱼倾向于以彼此平行的同步方式游动, 利用个体之间的侧向力达到节能目的
    Marras等[35] (2015) 利用相机与DPIV观察灰鲻鱼集群游动及水流情况, 测量标记鱼在不同位置的尾拍频率与幅值鱼群任何位置都可以节能, 耗氧率最多降低19.4%. 不只是尾部涡流, 鱼体前端周围的流体动力学也有助于提高邻近鱼游动效率
    Ashraf等[36-37] (2016, 2017) 利用立体视频记录仪跟踪红鼻四头鱼集群中每条鱼的3D位置及尾鳍摆动 鱼群快速游动时, 倾向于“矩形”或“并列”编队. 鱼间的水动力相互作用可以提高游动效率, 证明槽道效应在鱼群节能过程中发挥重要作用
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  CFD仿真法的发展历程

    Table  2  The development of the method of CFD simulation for fish schooling

    作者 研究方法 主要结论 (涡流效应)
    Kelly等[44-45] (2005, 2010),
    Deng等[46] (2006), Chung[47] (2011)
    从菱形鱼群中提取出三条鱼作为基本单元, 对其游动进行数值模拟 后方鱼可捕获前方鱼制造的尾涡, 并从脱落的反卡门涡街中受益达到节能目的
    Pan等[48] (2010), Shao等[49] (2010),
    Xiao等[50-51] (2011, 2012),
    Chao[52-53] (2018, 2019)
    数值模拟D形圆柱后柔性板NACA0012的被动运动 上游圆柱的存在增强了其尾流中的反卡门涡街, 后方柔性板的推力系数可提高4倍
    Khalid等[54] (2016), Tian等[55-56]
    (2011, 2016),
    Maertens等[57] (2017)
    分别数值模拟两条二维与三维的仿真鱼在编队中的游动 串联和交错编队均能提高游动效率, 后方鱼效率最高可提高30%. 通过利用迎面漩涡, 后方鱼可在能与前方鱼尾迹相互作用的位置受益
    Novati等[62] (2017), Verma等[63] (2018) 分别数值模拟两条二维与三维自主仿真鱼编队游动, 先导鱼步态固定, 尾随鱼利用深度强化学习来调整步态 尾随鱼的能量消耗减少30%, 游动效率增加20%. 鱼类可以通过将身体置于前方鱼身后的适当位置并拦截其脱落的涡流来提高自身推进效率
    作者 研究方法 主要结论 (槽道效应)
    王亮[64] (2007) 数值模拟多条二维仿真鱼在粘性流体中编队游动 小鱼跟随大鱼多利用侧向漩涡来提高推进效率. 体形相差不大的鱼多利用尾涡来提高的推进效率
    Daghooghi等[14] (2015) 数值模拟多条三维仿真鱼以矩形编队自主同步游动 同等能量消耗下集群游动的速度比单独游动快20%. 鱼间距离减小会提高游动方向的流体速度, 单靠流体动力相互作用足以产生高效的集群游动
    Hemelrijk等[66] (2015),
    Li 等[67] (2019)
    利用数值模拟研究了鱼群四种不同编队(串列、方阵、菱形和矩形)游动时的Froude效率 鱼集群游动比单独游动效率高, 但菱形队列并不是最优. 尾流和横向压力共同影响游动效率, 尾流主要影响推力, 横向压力主要影响功率损失
    Dai等[72] (2018) 分别数值模拟了2、3和4条仿真鱼组成的编队自主游动, 并用运输成本来量化稳定编队的游动效率 与单独游动相比, 集群游动COT最多减少16%, 但相较于其他编队, 菱形编队并没有表现出任何节能优势, 说明被动水动力相互作用是节能的主要原因
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  实验装置研究法的发展历程

    Table  3  The development of the method of experimental setup research for fish schooling

    作者 研究方法 主要结论
    Dewey等[79-80]
    (2013, 2014),
    Boschitsch等[81] (2014)
    利用高速相机及DPIV观察分析两个仿生柔性水翼在并列与串列结构中的摆动 并联结构中同相摆动尾流形成涡对, 诱导动量喷流来提高水翼推进效率; 串联结
    构中尾流形成相干模式, 后方水翼的效率最多可提高50%
    Becker等[83] (2015) 扑翼阵自主推进实验 仅通过流体动力学相互作用足以产生互相耦合的集群运动, 来提高推进效率
    裴正楷等[84-85] (2016) 研究两条仿鲹科机器鱼并排运动 通过流体传导, 并排游动的机器鱼在特定相位差时可以相互促进, 提高运动效率
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  三类研究方法特点对比

    Table  4  Comparison of three kinds of research methods

    对比项目优点缺点
    鱼群观察分析法反映真实鱼群游动情况编队不易保持, 不易精确定量分析
    计算流体力学仿真法可精确定量分析, 模拟各种编队不能反映真实的水动力学关系
    实验装置研究法可反映真实水动力学关系, 易保持队形, 可定量分析无法完全模拟鱼游动过程, 对实验装置和平台要求较高
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-05-09
  • 录用日期:  2020-10-04
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-12-21
  • 刊出日期:  2021-04-02

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